Disability rules regarding speech impairment are complex
Speech impairment, speech impediment or speech disorders are general terms that describe a communication problem in which a person’s speech is abnormal in some way. Speech impairments can range from stuttering problems to lisps to inability to speak. Speech disorders can be caused by a variety of factors, including hearing loss or neurological disorders. Oftentimes, the cause of a speech disorder is not known. Typically, speech impediments are treated by speech therapy, with varying degrees of success.
Am I likely to get my disability claim approved based on my speech impairment?
To determine whether you meet their definition of being disabled, Social Security relies on a variety of factors, including the severity of your symptoms, the effectiveness of treatment options, the strength of your medical evidence, your age, your education level and the type of work you have done. To be approved, your allegations of speech loss must be supported with strong medical evidence. If your speech problem is a symptom of an underlying illness, such as Parkinson’s Disease or Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), your treatment records should include these conditions as well.
What process does SSA use to determine if my speech impairment qualifies for disability benefits?
Social Security employs a 5-step sequential evaluation process to determine if you qualify for disability benefits under the SSDI and/or SSI programs. At each phase of a disability claim, there is an adjudicator, or decision-maker. At the Initial Application and Reconsideration phases, the decision-maker is a DDS Examiner who works in consultation with a DDS Physician. At the Hearing phase, the decision-maker is the Administrative Law Judge who often consults with a Medical Expert (ME). The following evaluation is employed by the adjudicator at each phase.
Step 1: Non-Medical Criteria. First and foremost, you cannot be working above what Social Security calls a Substantial, Gainful Activity (SGA) level. Basically, you cannot be earning more than $1,090 on a gross (pre-tax) monthly basis. The SGA rule is the most important non-medical criteria, but there are other non-medical criteria that also must be satisfied in order for the claim to progress to a complete medical review at Step 2. No matter how severe and disabling your speech impairment may be (even if it is well-supported by years of medical evidence), if you do not meet the non-medical eligibility requirements, your claim will not advance to Step 2 and your claim will be technically denied. You can appeal a technical denial but, in general, if the facts are correct, the appeal will not be successful.
Step 2: Severe Impairment. The question at Step 2 is simply, “Is your speech loss severe?” To answer this question, all medical evidence is assembled. If you have an Attorney or Non-Attorney Representative, they should be heavily involved in this process. The adjudicator can also request that you complete Activities of Daily Living and Vocational Questionnaires, which provide an opportunity to communicate how your symptoms have impacted your ability to function normally. The adjudicator may also schedule a Consultative Examination (CE) with a doctor who is contracted by DDS to perform medical evaluations on their behalf. Once all evidence has been assembled, the adjudicator reviews the information and decides whether or not your symptoms are severe. To be considered severe, the symptoms must limit your ability to perform basic work-like activities. If your symptoms are determined to be non-severe, your claim will be denied at Step 3 and you would have the opportunity to appeal this denial. However, if the condition is determined to be severe, your claim progresses to Step 3 for further analysis.
Step 3: Medical Listings. At Step 3, the question is whether your vision loss meets or equals a medical “Listing.” Social Security has broken down the human body and mind into 14 different Impairment categories, called the Listing of Impairments. Speech loss claims are typically evaluated under Listing 2.09 Loss of Speech, which is a subset of Listing 2.00 Special Senses and Speech impairments. Disability under Listing 2.09 requires a loss of speech due to any cause, with an inability to produce, by any means, speech that can be heard, understood, or sustained. Diagnosis and evaluation of these impairments must be supported by medical records from a treating physician. If the adjudicator reviews your medical records and determines you meet the above listing, you are found to be Disabled at Step 3 and you are eligible to receive disability benefits. If, however, you do not meet a medical listing, the claim proceeds to Step 4.
Step 4: Past Work. The objective of Step 4 is to determine whether you have the ability to perform work you have performed previously. To determine what you are capable of doing, the adjudicator develops your Residual Functional Capacity (RFC). Your RFC identifies what you can still do after considering all of your medical symptoms, including your speech loss. The adjudicator will estimate your ability to perform such functions as remembering, communicating, understanding, etc. Your RFC might contain some of the following limitations: inability to follow short instructions, inability to recall information, limited ability to interact with the public, inability to work in coordination with others, etc.
Once the adjudicator has developed your RFC, they will then list your Past Relevant Work (PRW), which is any job you performed during the 15 year period immediately preceding the Alleged Onset Date (AOD) of your disability. In general, if there is a job that you performed within 15 years of your AOD in which you worked close to full-time for a period of at least a few months, that job will likely be considered Past Relevant Work.
After finalizing your list of Past Relevant Work, the adjudicator must now classify it. The type of work you have done in the past will be classified by both exertional level and by skill level. Once all of your PRW has been classified, the adjudicator must then determine whether you have the functional ability to perform any of your past work. If the adjudicator determines you can still perform the functions required in you past work, despite your speech loss, you will be found Not Disabled and denied. You would then have the opportunity to appeal this denial. However, if you cannot perform your prior work, the analysis proceeds to Step 5.
Step 5: Other Work. Step 5 considers whether you can perform any other type of work, even if you have not performed it in the past. The adjudicator utilizes the same Residual Functional Capacity (RFC) developed in Step 4, and also considers your Age, Education, and Work Experience.
To start, Social Security classifies your Education level as follows:
• Illiterate (or unable to communicate in English)
• Marginal (generally 6th grade or less)
• Limited (generally 7th through 11th grades)
• High school (and above)
The Education level is important as it affects the skill level of different jobs that you might be able to perform. For example, if you have a Marginal education, then you would be limited to performing Unskilled jobs, but if you have a High school education then you would be expected to be able to perform both Semi-Skilled and Skilled jobs.
The adjudicator will then consider your Work Experience, specifically any skills and abilities you acquired from your past work. The fact that you are now at Step 5 means the adjudicator determined at Step 4 that you can no longer perform your past work. However, the adjudicator will consider whether any of the skills and abilities you learned from your past work would transfer to a different job. For example, a Nurse who can no longer perform her past work due to her speech loss might have acquired skills which would transfer to a Security Monitor, which she may still be able to perform.
Finally, the adjudicator will consider the last factor, Age. Social Security evaluates adults in several Age categories:
• Younger (ages 18-49)
• Closely approaching advanced age (ages 50-54)
• Advanced age (ages 55-59)
• Closely approaching retirement age (ages 60+)
While Younger individuals have the burden of proving they are unable to perform any type of work, the burden is lessened in the more advanced age categories. Social Security refers to this premise as the Medical-Vocational Guidelines, or the “Grid Rules” because the key factors are laid out in a grid with the final column being a determination of either Disabled or Not Disabled. Basically, the older, less educated and the fewer transferable skills you acquired in your past work, the more likely you are to be found Disabled.
If the adjudicator determines you can perform some other type of work, based on your age, education, and prior work experience, you would be found Not Disabled and denied. You would have the opportunity to appeal this denial. If, however, the adjudicator determines you cannot perform any other type of work, you would be found Disabled and approved for disability benefits at Step 5.
Conclusion: Will my disability claim be approved?
Social Security disability claims based on speech loss are rarely straightforward, because they typically involve other impairments. Social Security will review all impairments together to determine whether you will qualify for SSDI or SSI benefits. If you would like to discuss the specifics of your case with a disability expert now, please contact us. We will do everything possible to get your claim approved.